General information: First Jewish presence: early 19th century; peak Jewish population: 287 in 1880; Jewish population in 1933: 118
Summary: At the beginning of the 19th century, 14 or 15 Jewish families lived in Preussisch-Friedland (Polish: Debrzno). At some point in the 1890s, the Jewish community consecrated a synagogue (on Stretziner Strasse) and a Jewish cemetery. In 1933, 118 Jews resided in Preussisch-Friedland; thirty-two children studied religion with a teacher who also performed the duties of chazzan and shochet. Three Jewish welfare organizations (a chevra kadisha, founded in 1877; an Israelite fund for supporting the poor, founded in 1927; and an Israelite women’s association, founded in 1888) offered assistance to the ill and the indigent. Furthermore, three local branches of national organizations, such as the Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith, were active in the community. During the years 1933 to 1935, anti-Semitic violence intensified in Preussisch- Friedland; windows in the synagogue and in Jewish homes were smashed, Jewish property was attacked and headstones at the cemetery were overturned. On Pogrom Night (November 9-10, 1938), the synagogue was destroyed, Jewish-owned stores were demolished and Jewish men were sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Many local Jews emigrated from or relocated within Germany. In March 1940, the remaining Jews were sent to the Buergergarten camp near Schneidemuehl, after which they were deported to the concentration and extermination camps in Eastern Europe. At least 12 Preussisch-Friedland Jews perished in the Shoah. In June 2010, the Jewish cemetery was desecrated.
Author / Sources: Heidemarie Wawrzyn
Sources: EJL, FJG, LJG, YV
Located in: posen-west-prussia