General information: First Jewish presence: 1300; peak Jewish population: 251 in 1880; Jewish population in 1933: 106
Summary: Although 2,300 Jewish refugees settled in Glatz (presentday Klodzko, Poland) after World War II, making up four percent of the total population, the vast majority emigrated from Germany during the following years. Accordingly, we have chosen to cite the Jewish population of 1880 (see above) as the peak population figure. The Jews in Glatz were first documented in 1300. They were expelled from the town in 1492, and it was not until 1812 that a considerable and lasting Jewish presence was established there. The community maintained two synagogues (built in 1821 and 1823, respectively) and two cemeteries, the locations of which are not known. A synagogue attended by liberal Jews was built on Gruene Strasse in 1884/85, and we also know that Glatz was home to the Jewish kindergarten and dormitory (19 Okrzei Street) of Janusz Korczak (the famous Jewish teacher and writer). By 1933, the community numbered 106. Many emigrated during the following years, so that by 1937 only 62 Jews lived in Glatz. On Pogrom Night, rioters set the synagogue on fire and destroyed Jewish-owned stores, soon after which the mayor ordered all local Jews to change their names to either Sara or Israel. In 1938, the town was severely damaged by a major flood, encouraging more residents (Jews and Christians alike) to flee. Twenty-two Jews still lived in Glatz in 1939; in 1942, only three Jews remained. Little, however, is known of the community’s fate during the 1940s. According to Yad Vashem, at least 30 Glatz Jews were murdered in the Shoah. A memorial plaque was unveiled at the former synagogue site in 1995. Glatz, an erstwhile center of culture, commerce and tourism, is no longer home to a Jewish community.
Author / Sources: Benjamin Rosendahl
Sources: EJL, LJG, YV
Located in: silesia