General information: First Jewish presence: 1700; peak Jewish population: 156 in 1864; Jewish population in 1933: 28
Summary: In Ilvesheim, a Jewish prayer room was established at the turn of the 18th century. In 1810, the community built a synagogue on Hauptstrasse, near the Neckar River. Due to damage caused by high humidity, the building underwent thorough repairs in 1826/27; its woodwork was repaired yet again in 1882, and we also know that vandals smashed a window there in 1846. Other communal institutions included a school (established in the mid-1830s) and a cemetery, the latter of which was consecrated in 1860, and vandalized in 1911 and throughout the 1930s. On Pogrom Night, members of the SA damaged the synagogue building: windows and furniture were smashed; holy books and Torah scrolls were set on fire. At the cemetery, the rioters smashed headstones and opened several graves. Six local Jews were sent to Dachau on Pogrom Night. Ten Ilvesheim Jews immigrated to the United States, seven moved to Mannheim, four died in Ilvesheim and seven, the last, were deported to Gurs in October 1940 (all seven died). At least 17 Ilvesheim Jews perished in the Shoah. The synagogue building—ownership was transferred to the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization after the war—was sold in 1951, after which it was converted into a residential building. A memorial plaque has been unveiled at the cemetery.
Photo: In 1935, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of its inauguration, the synagogue of Ilvesheim was decorated. Courtesy of: City Archive of Ilvesheim.
Author / Sources: Heike Zaun Goshen
Sources: AJ, HU, PK-BW
Located in: baden-wuerttemberg