General information: First Jewish presence: 17th century; peak Jewish population: 202 in 1859; Jewish population in 1933: 37
Summary: From the mid-18th century until 1824, Neckarbischofsheim was the seat of the district rabbinate. The community established a mikveh by 1648, a synagogue in 1746 and another synagogue in 1769. The synagogue on Schulgasse, meaning “school (or synagogue) alley,” inaugurated in 1849, accommodated 150 to 200 men and 100 women; because the building stood on swampy land, it was supported by pillars. Neckarbischofsheim’s Jewish school, opened in 1849, was closed in 1876, as were all confessional schools in Baden. We also know that burials were conducted in Waibstadt. In 1933, 37 Jews lived in Neckarbischofsheim. A chevra kadisha and a women’s association were active in the community, and a teacher—he also served as the chazzan and shochet—instructed three schoolchildren in religion. A Jewish physician was director of the town’s hospital. Neckarbischofsheim’s synagogue was burned down on Pogrom Night, as were its 14 Torah scrolls. The school was destroyed, and both buildings were demolished shortly after the pogrom. All Jewish men were sent to Dachau. Four Jews moved to Neckarbischofsheim after 1933; two Jewish babies were born there during this period. Twentyfive local Jews emigrated, four died in the town and 14 were deported to Gurs on October 22, 1940. At least 29 Neckarbischofsheim Jews died in the Shoah. In 1981, a menorah and plaque were unveiled at the synagogue site.
Author / Sources: Heike Zaun Goshen
Sources: AH, AJ, EJL, PK BW
Located in: baden-wuerttemberg