Deutsche Krone

General information: First Jewish presence: 1623; peak Jewish population: 647 in 1871; Jewish population in 1933: 250
Summary: The first available record of a Jewish presence in Deutsche Krone (present-day Walcz, Poland) is dated 1623. Jews were initially restricted to designated areas, forbidden from living in the old city and forced to pay special taxes. By 1698, however, Deutsche Krone had seven Jewish homes (each housing four Jewish families) and a synagogue. The Jewish community grew during the late 18th century, reaching its peak, 647 Jews, in 1871. Deutsche Krone suffered two fires during that century: one in 1706 and another, which destroyed the synagogue, in 1771. A new synagogue was built in the early 1790s, and we also know that the community maintained an elementary school (1842-1912) and a cemetery. Deutsche Krone was among the few West Prussian localities to remain in Germany after World War I. Although many Jewish-owned businesses were aryanized during the Nazi period, Jewish peddlers and horse dealers were able to continue working until November 10, 1938, when the synagogue (inaugurated in 1921) was burned down in the pogrom; Jewish-owned businesses were also demolished and Jewish men taken to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Only 57 Jews lived in Deutsche Krone on Pogrom Night; those who had not left the town by March 1940 were interned in Schneidemuehl and later deported to the East.
Author / Sources: Fred Gottlieb
Sources: EJL, LJG
Located in: posen-west-prussia